Research under this theme focuses on understanding current and possible future patterns of energy use and their causes, analysing the effects of energy policy, and identifying opportunities for reducing energy use and carbon emissions through better policy. It covers energy use in the residential and buildings sectors in most detail, but also undertakes economy-wide policy analysis. The equity aspects of both current policy and patterns of use, and of potential future policies are of concern, as is the issue of fuel poverty. There is a focus on energy-related decision-making by individuals and organisations. Research under this theme is informed by theories from natural and social sciences, and uses quantitative and qualitative evidence to deliver multi-disciplinary analysis.