Living with environmental change poses a number of management and policy challenges. We need, for example, to understand how resistant ecosystems are in terms of buffering the impact of external pressures. We also need to know if they can recover from disturbances to their functioning. Finally, we need some understanding of what kind of dynamics ecosystems might have in the future, as a result of changes in external conditions, such as those related to climate, pollution loads or land management practices. Collectively the issues of ecosystem resistance and recovery have been addressed in the discussions surrounding the idea of ?resilience?. The aim of this project is to take stock of the scientific, management and policy literature on this topic, and assess the robustness of the current evidence base that could be used to frame policy and management responses.