Dr Tom Thornton
Senior Research Fellow and Associate Professor
I am a senior research fellow at the ECI. My academic training is in social and cultural anthropology (BA Swarthmore College; MA, PhD University of Washington). Before coming to Oxford in 2008, I taught at Portland State University, Trinity College, Saint Lawrence University, the University of Alaska, and Beijing Normal University (Fulbright Lectureship). I also worked in government as an environmental resource specialist and as a consultant to Native American tribes.
My primary teaching and research interests are in human ecology, adaptation, local and traditional ecological knowledge, conservation, coastal and marine environments, conceptualizations of space and place, and the political ecology of resource management among the indigenous peoples of North America and the circumpolar North.
Recent research projects include:
GREEN-WIN is a European Union Horizon 2020 research project that assesses possibilities for green growth and win-win strategies for sustainable climate action (mitigation and adaptation) in the face of climate change impacts on societal wellbeing. I co-lead the Oxford work package on Transformation in Urban Systems (http://green-win-project.eu/about/wp6 ). Our focus is on key win-win opportunity spaces in critical sectors for decarbonisation—such as transport and construction—in the global cities of Barcelona Istanbul, Shanghai, and Venice, and what kind of enabling environments are necessary to support successful win-win transitions toward sustainability.
This project will identify best practices in the development of indigenous ecotourism from a social entrepreneurial and cultural-institutional perspective.
Human Adaptation to Biodiversity Change (HABC)
Co-Investigator, Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation lead project funded through a partnership between the Department for International Development (DFID), the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), 2010-11
This project's aim is to kickstart the development of appropriate conceptual frameworks, methods and integrated models for understanding human adaptation to change in biodiversity and related ecosystem services that can eventually be used to predict outcomes for biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being in highly biodiversity dependent societies, and provide evidence for the utility of these outputs to a new network of researchers and policy makers. The building blocks for development of concepts, methods, tools and models are
- local information or knowledge systems and monitoring capacity;
- local valuation of biodiversity and related ecosystem services;
- integrating biological resources and ecosystem services into an understanding of livelihood processes;
- assessing perceptions, risks, needs, and ability to respond;
- under-standing biological and welfare outcomes and feedbacks.
The project joins partners from anthropology, economics and ecology/biology at Oxford, Kent and The University of London's School of Oriental and African Studies, with partners from South Africa and India. Partners will jointly elaborate the conceptual framework in a first intensive workshop using a scenario building protocol. Then, teams incrementally develop and evaluate research protocols and methods and collect primary data in a field research site in the Western Ghats, and results are initially modeled.
Indigenous-State Relations in Alaska and Beyond: Sustainable Livelihoods, Biocultural Diversity and Health since the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) (Principal Investigator, National Science Foundation, $485,000, 2008-2011)
In September 2007, the National Science Foundation, Arctic Social Science Program funded this three-year project under grant #OPP-0715461. The objective of the project is to analyze how the creation of Alaska Native business corporations (spawned by the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971) transformed institutional arrangements between Alaska Natives, state governments, ecosystems, and regional-global economies, and how these Native corporations have contributed to particular outcomes in indigenous groups' biocultural health as measured by indigenous and cross-cultural models of sustainable livelihoods and ecosystem services. The study compares development, socio-environmental change, and livelihoods in two separate biocultural regions: Bering Straits (Inupiat) and Southeast Alaska (Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian), which are served by two regional and more than a dozen village corporations.
Dynamics of Circumpolar Land Use and Ethnicity (CLUE): Social Impacts of Policy and Climate Change (Co-Principal Investigator, US National Science Foundation, 2008-2012)
This project is funded under the International Polar Year Initiative. It examines how the impacts of rapid climatic change among the peoples of the circumpolar rim affect land use and ethnicity. Using anthropological fieldwork and semi-structured interviews of members of local northern populations in Alaska, Fennoscandia, and Russia, as well as their representative organizations and government resource managers, we aim to establish the current "rules of the game" with respect to definitions, eligibility criteria, and accompanying land and resource rights. Given the variety of different criteria by which states justify special resource allocations, such as ethnic heritage, form of livelihood, residency, or even population size, CLUE seeks to uncover negotiated and path-dependant patterns of ethnicity in the context of these evolving rules and increasingnatural resource pressures, rapid climate change and resultant “rationalizations” of livelihoods.
Oceans and Human Systems
Herring Synthesis: Documenting and Modeling Herring Spawning Areas within Socio-Ecological Systems over Time in the Southeastern Gulf of Alaska (Principal Investigator, North Pacific Research Board, 2007-2009)
More recently I have extended this research on marine ecosystems as part of Royal Anthropological Institute (RAI) Urgent Anthropology Fellowship, including networking with researchers involved in or developing similar ethnographic and historical-ecological investigations in the Canadian, Japanese, and Russian Pacific spheres, as well as the North Atlantic.
Project outputs include:
Ocean Modeling Forum
In 2015 I became a member of the Oceam Modeling Forum and working group, which fosters networks of scientists and managers to improve the way models are used to address the most pressing challenges facing the world’s oceans.
Food sovereignty and sharing the future of the herring in the North Pacific A project with Shingo Hamada of IUCN CEESP on how the exchange of food gift weaves inter and intra-communal social networks in the mid of the herring conservation controversy in the North Pacific.
I direct and teach primarily on the Environmental Change and Management MSc course and offer an elective on Indigenous Peoples and the Environment.
Current DPhil students include:
- Victoria Wyllie de Echeverria
Linking interactions between cultural and biological diversity on the Pacific Coast of North America in the face of climatic change
- Carolina Gueiros
Forest governance in the Brazilian Amazon: Policy change and Innovation to curb deforestation
- Logan Hamilton
How has the 2013 Village Law impacted power dynamics concerning village forest governance in Indonesia?
- Brice Perombelon
Geopolitical Arctic(s): Indigenous representations of geo-power: the case of the Sahtu Dene
Recent DPhil students
- Emma Cardwell
Using property rights to manage fisheries: A study of the UK's market based fisheries policy
- Abrar Chaudhury
Organising climate change adaptation: An organisation and network perspective to agriculture adaptation in developing countries
- Dan Cooper
Under Mount Roraima: The conservation and development of a sacred landscape
- Alexis Gutierrez
The impact of market-based incentives on global sustainable fishing
- Erin Freeland-Ballantyne
Sustainability’s paradox: community health, climate change and petrocapitalism
- Dominic Henri
Managing nature, producing cultures: Inuit participation, science and policy in wildlife governance in the Nunavut Territory
- Bernardo Peredo
Forest governance and development: meandering paradigms in the Bolivian lowlands
- Chase Sova
Decision-making, agenda setting, and preference shaping in Ghana’s agricultural climate change adaptation policy regime: A political ecology perspective
- Jessica Thorn
Measuring local ecosystem services of small-scale agricultural landscapes in the context of global environment change
- Claudia Comberti
Climate change and Amazonian Indigenous peoples: Adaptation, development and social-ecological systems.
- Ma, Y., Lan, J., Thornton, T., Mangalagiu, D. and Zhu, D. (2018) Challenges of Collaborative Governance in the Sharing Economy: The case of free-floating bike sharing in Shanghai. Journal of Cleaner Production.
- Ma, Y., Rong, K., Mangalagiu, D., Thornton, T.F. and Zhu, D. (2018) Co-evolution between urban sustainability and business ecosystem innovation: Evidence from the sharing mobility sector in Shanghai. Journal of Cleaner Production, 188: 942-953.
- MacCall, A.D., Francis, T.B., Punt, A.E., Siple, M.C., Armitage, D.R., Cleary, J.S., Dressel, S.C., Jones, R.R., Kitka, H., Levin, S., McIsaac, J., Okamoto, D.K., Poe, M., Reifenstuhl, S., Schmidt, J.O., Shelton, A.O., Silver, J.J., Thornton, T.F., Voss, R. and Woodruf, J. (2018) A heuristic model of socially learned migration behaviour exhibits distinctive spatial and reproductive dynamics. ICES Journal of Marine Science.
- Punt, A.E., Okamoto, D.K.,MacCall, A.D., Shelton, A.O., Armitage, D.R., Cleary, J.S., Davies, I.P., Dressel, S.C., Francis, T.B., Levin, P.S., Jones, R.R., Kitka, H., Lee, L.Y., Mclsaac, J.A., Poe, M.R., Reifenstuhi, S., Silver, J.J., Schmidf, J.O., Thornton, T.F., Voss, R. and Woodruff, J. (2018) When are estimates of spawning stock biomass for small pelagic fishes improved by taking spatial structure into account? Fisheries Research, 206: 65-78.
- Thornton, T.F., Ma, Y., Lan, J. and Mangalagiu, D. (2018) Disruptive Innovation and Win-Win Strategies for the Sharing Mobility Economy..
- Woodall, L.C., Andradi-Brown, D.A., Brierley, A.S., Clark, M.R., Connelly, D., Hall, R.A., Howell, K.L., Huvenne, V.A.I., Linse, K., Ross, R.E., Snelgrove, P., Stefanoudis, P.V., Sutton, T.T., Taylor, M., Thornton, T.F. and Rogers, A.D. (2018) A Multidisciplinary Approach for Generating Globally Consistent Data on Mesophotic, Deep-Pelagic, and Bathyal Biological Communities. Oceanography.
- Chaudhury, A.S., Thornton, T., Helfgott, A., Ventresca, M.J. and Sova, C. (2017) Ties that bind: Local networks, communities and adaptive capacity in rural Ghana. Journal of Rural Studies, 53: 214-228.
- Chaudhury, A.S., Thornton, T.F., Helfgott, A. and Sova, C. (2017) Applying the robust adaptation planning (RAP) framework to Ghana's agricultural climate change adaptation regime. Sustainability Science: 1-20.
- Comberti, C., Thornton, T., Bennett, A., Root-Bernstein, M. (2017) Climate Change Adaptation, Development and Archaeology in the Amazon..
- Lan, J., Ma, Y., Zhu, D., Mangalagiu, D., and Thornton, T.F. (2017) Enabling Value Co-Creation in the Sharing Economy: The Case of Mobike. Sustainability, 9.
- McNeill, J.L. and Thornton, T. (2017) Pipelines, Petitions, and Protests in the Internet Age: Exploring the Human Geographies of Online Petitions Challenging Proposed Transcontinental Alberta Oil Sands Pipelines. Annals of the American Association of Geographers.
- Sova, C., Thornton, T.F., Zougmore, R., Helfgott, A. and Chaudhury, A.S. (2017) Power and influence mapping in Ghana's agricultural adaptation policy regime. Climate and Development, 9(5): 399-414.
- Thornton, T.F. (2017) Coastal lakes and lagoons as dynamic sites of exchange among the Tlingit of Alaska. Maritime Studies, 16(4).
- Thornton, T.F. and Comberti, C. (2017) Synergies and trade-offs between adaptation, mitigation and development. Climatic Change, 140(1): 5-18.
- Bhagwat, S.A., Economou, A. and Thornton, T. (2016) The Idea of Climate Change as a Belief System: Why Climate Activism Resembles a Religious Movement. GAIA, 25(2): 94-98.
- Chaudhury, A.S., Helfgott, A., Thornton, T.F. and Sova, C. (2016) Participatory adaptation planning and costing. Applications in agricultural adaptation in western Kenya. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 21(3): 301-322.
- Chaudhury, A.S., Ventresca, M.J., Thornton, T.F., Helfgott, A., Sova, C., Baral, P., Rasheed, T. and Ligthart, J. (2016) Emerging meta-organisations and adaptation to global climate change: Evidence from implementing adaptation in Nepal, Pakistan and Ghana. Global Environmental Change, 38: 243-257.
- Comberti, C., Thornton, T. and Korodimou, M. (2016) Addressing Indigenous Peoples’ Marginalisation at International Climate Negotiations: Adaptation and resilience at the margins.
- Hunt, W., Hartley, R. McCune, B., Ali, N. and Thornton, T. (2016) Maritime Alpine Cairns in Southeast Alaska: A Multidisciplinary Exploratory Study. A Multidisciplinary Exploratory Study. Report prepared for the Tongass National Forest, National Forest Service and supported by the National Science Foundation (Project 1230132) Arctic Social Sciences Program, Division of Polar Programs. Anthropology Department, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
- Pyhälä, A., Fernández-Llamazares, Á., Lehvävirta, H., Byg, A., Ruiz-Mallén, I., Salpeteur, M. and Thornton, T.F. (2016) Global Environmental Change: Local perceptions, understandings and explanations. Ecology and Society, 21(3).
- Sova, C.A., Thornton, T.F., Zougmore, R., Helfgott, A. and Chaudhury, A.S. (2016) Power and influence mapping in Ghana's agricultural adaptation policy regime. Climate and Development: 1-16.
- Thekaekara, T. and Thornton, T.F. (2016) Ethnic Diversity and Human-Elephant Conflict in the Nilgiris, South India. In, Locke, P. and Buckingham, J. (eds.) Rethinking Human-Elephant Relations in South Asia: Conflict, Negotiation, and Coexistence. Oxford University Press. pp. 300-329.
- Thornton, T. and Mamontova, N. (2016) Hunter-Gatherers and Fishing Rights in Alaska and Siberia: Contemporary Governmentality, Subsistence, and Sustainable Enterprises. Chapter 9 in, Hunter-Gatherers in a Changing World. Springer.
- Thornton, T.F. (2016) Discovering Opportunities for Adaptation in the Arctic. Cultural Anthropology.
- Thornton, T.F. and Malhi, Y. (2016) The Trickster in the Anthropocene. The Anthropocene Review, 1(4).
- Thornton, T.F. and Wanasuk, P. (2016) Indigenous Tourism as a sustainable social-environmental enterprise: The political ecology of tourism in Southeast Alaska. 1.1 in, Nepal, S. and Saarinen, J. (eds.) Political Ecology and Tourism. Routledge. pp. 21-38. ISBN: 9781138852464.
- Thornton, T.F., Notti, E., Sattler, M. and Owletuck, G. (2016) Alaska Natives and the State’s Political Economy: Changing Power Relationships. Chapter 9 in, Thomas, C.S., Savatgy, L. and Klimovich, K. (eds.) Alaska Politics and Public Policy: The Dynamics of Beliefs, Institutions, Personalities, and Power. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks. pp. 273-312.
- Wanasuk, P. and Thornton, T.F. (2016) Aboriginal Tourism as Sustainable Social-Environmental Enterprise (SSEE): A Tlingit Case Study from Southeast Alaska. International Indigenous Policy Journal, 6(4).
- Cardwell, E. and Thornton, T.F. (2015) The fisherly imagination: The promise of geographical approaches to marine management. Geoforum, 64: 157-167.
- Comberti, C., Thornton, T.F., Wylliede Echeverria, V. and Patterson, T. (2015) Ecosystem services or services to ecosystems? Valuing cultivation and reciprocal relationships between humans and ecosystems. Global Environmental Change, 34: 247-262.
- Sova, C., Vervoort, J., Thornton, T., Helfgott, A., Matthews, D. and Chaudhury, A. (2015) Exploring farmer preference shaping in international agricultural climate change adaptation regimes. Environmental Science and Policy, 54: 463-474.
- Sova, C.A., Helfgott, A., Chaudhury, A., Matthews, D., Thornton, T. and Vermeulen, S. (2015) Multi-level Stakeholder Influence Mapping: Visualizing Power Relations Across Actor Levels in Nepal’s Agricultural Climate Change Adaptation Regime. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 28(4): 383-409.
- Thorn, J., Thornton, T.F. and Helfgott, A. (2015) Autonomous adaptation to global environmental change in peri-urban settlements: Evidence of a growing culture of innovation and revitalisation in Mathare Valley Slums, Nairobi. Global Environmental Change, 31: 121-131.
- Thornton, T. and Hebert, J. (2015) Neoliberal and neo-communal herring fisheries in Southeast Alaska: Reframing sustainability in marine ecosystems. Marine Policy, 61: 366-375.
- Thornton, T., Deur, D. and Kita Sr, H. (2015) Cultivation of Salmon and other Marine Resources on the Northwest Coast of North America. Human Ecology, 43(2).
- Thornton, T.F. (2015) Place as Education’s Source. In, Kan, S. (ed.) Sharing our Knowledge: The Tlingit and their Coastal Neighbors. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. pp. 364-379.
- Thornton, T.F. (2015) The Ideology and Practice of Pacific Herring Cultivation among the Tlingit and Haida. Human Ecology, 43(2): 213-223.
- Thornton, T.F. and Deur, D. (2015) Introduction to the Special Section on Marine Cultivation among Indigenous Peoples of the Northwest Coast. Human Ecology, 43(2): 187.
- Thornton, T.F. and Thornton, P.M. (2015) The Mutable, the Mythical and the Managerial: Raven Narratives and the Anthropocene. Environment and Society: Advances in Research, 6(1): 66-86.
- Thornton., T.F. and Kitka, H. (2015) An Indigenous Model of a Contested Pacific Herring Fishery in Sitka, Alaska. International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research, 6(1): 94-117.
- Chaudhury, A., Sova, C., Rasheed, T., Thornton, T.F., Baral, P. and Zeb, A. (2014) Deconstructing Local Adaptation Plans for Action (LAPAs) - Analysis of Nepal and Pakistan LAPA initiatives. Working Paper CGIAR, Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).
- Guitierrez, A. and Thornton, T. (2014) Can Consumers Understand Sustainability through Seafood Eco-Labels? A U.S. and UK Case Study. Sustainability, 6(11).
- Kaul, V. and Thornton, T.F. (2014) Resilience and adaptation to extremes in a changing Himalayan environment. Regional Environmental Change, 14(2): 683-698.
- Thornton, T.F. (2014) A Tale of Three Parks. In, Stevens. S. (ed.) Indigenous Peoples, National Parks and Protected Areas: A New Paradigm Linking Conservation, Culture and Rights. . pp. 108-129.
- Thornton, T.F. and Hope, I. (2014) "Our tears never left this ground”: An appreciation of Tlingit ritual oratory. AlterNative, 10(2).
- Weiland, P. and Thornton, T.F. (2014) Listening to (Some) Barking Dogs: Assessing Hernando de Soto's Recipe for the Development of the Amazon Natives of Peru. Harvard Journal on Racial and Ethnic Justice, 30(2014).
- Sikka, M., Thornton, T.F. and Worl, R. (2013) Sustainable Biomass Energy and Indigenous Cultural Models of Well-being in an Alaska Forest Ecosystem. Ecology and Society, 18(3).
- Thekaekara, T., Vasanth, N. and Thornton, T.F. (2013) Diversity as a Livelihood Strategy Near Mudumalai, Tamil Nadu: An Inquiry. In, Purushothaman, S. and Abraham, R. (eds.) Livelihood Strategies in Southern India: Conservation and Poverty Reduction in the Forest Fringes. Springer. pp. 49-69.
- Bhagwat, S.A., Breman, E., Thekaekara, T., Thornton, T.F. and Willis, K.J. (2012) A battle lost? Report on two centuries of invasion and management of Lantana, camara L. in Australia, India and South Africa. PLoS ONE, 7(3).
- Sikka, M. and Thornton, T.F. (2012) Sustainable wood-biomass energy systems: climate and development solutions for forest communities. Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN).. 1-8.
- Thornton, T. (ed.) (2012) Haa Léelk'w Hás Aaní Saax'u / Our Grandparents' Names on the Land. University of Washington Press. pp. 256. ISBN: 9780295988580.
- Thornton, T. (2012) Watersheds and Marinescapes: Understanding and Maintaining Cultural Diversity Among Southeast Alaska Natives. Watersheds and Marin in, Johnston, B.R., Hiwasaki, L., Klaver, I.J., Castillo, A.R. and Strang, V. (eds.) Water, Cultural Diversity and Global Environmental Change. SpringerLink. Commissioned by UNESCO-IHP.
- Thornton, T. and Maciejewski Scheer, A. (2012) Collaborative Engagement of Local and Traditional Knowledge and Science in Marine Environments: A Review. Ecology and Society, 17(3:8).
- Thornton, T. (2011) Language and landscape among the Tlingit. Chapter 13 in, Mark, D.M., Turk, A.G., Burenhult, N. and D. Stea (eds.) Landscape in Language. Transdisciplinary perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 275-289. ISBN: 978-9027202864.
- Thornton, T.F. (2011) Already here and rich. In, Holder Spude, C., Mills, R.O., Gurcke, K. and R. Sprague (eds.) Eldorado! The Archaeology of Gold Mining in the Far North. University of Nebraska Press. 376 pp. ISBN: 978-0-8032-1099-8.
- von Glasenapp, M. and Thornton, T.F. (2011) Traditional ecological lnowledge of Swiss alpine farmers and their resilience to socioecological change. Human Ecology, 39(6): 769-781.
- Hunn, E.S. and Thornton, T.F. (2010) Tlingit birds: An annotated list with a statistical comparative analysis. Chapter 13 in, Tidemann, S. and Gosler, A. (eds.) Ethno-ornithology: Birds, indigenous peoples, culture and society. Earthscan. pp. 181-209. ISBN: 978-1-84407-783-0.
- Thornton, T. and Manasfi, N. (2010) Adaptation - genuine and spurious: demystifying adaptation processes in relation to climate change. Environment and Society, 1(1): 132-155.
- Thornton, T.F. (2010) A tale of three parks: Tlingit conservation, representation and repatriation in southeast Alaska's National Parks. Human Organization, 69(2): 107-118.
- Thornton, T.F. and Kitka Sr. and H. (2010) The Tlingit Way of Conservation: A Matter of Respect. In, Painemilla, W. and Rylands, A.B. and Woofter, A. and C. Hughes (eds.) Indigenous Peoples and Conservation: From Rights to Resource Management. Conservation International. pp. 211-218. ISBN: 9781934151396.
- Thornton, T.F., Moss, M.L., Butler, V.L., Hebert, J. and Funk, F. (2010) Local and traditional knowledge and the historical ecology of Pacific herring in Alaska. Journal of Ecological Anthropology, 14(1): 81-88.
- Thornton, T.F. (2009) Anatomy of a traditional cultural property: the saga of Auke Cape. The George Wright Forum, 26(1): 64-75.
- Hunn, E.S., Johnson, D.R., Russell, P.N. and Thornton, T.F. (2007) Huna Tlingit gull egg harvests in Glacier Bay National Park, 2007.Piatt, J.F. and S.M. Gende (eds.) Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5047 Proceedings of the Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium, October 26–28, 2004. U.S.. 193-195.
- Thornton, T. (2007) Alaska Native Corporations and Subsistence: Paradoxical forces in the construction of sustainable communities. Chapter 2 in, Maida, C.A. (ed.) Sustainability and Communities of Place. Bergham, Oxford. ISBN: 978-1-84545-016-8.
- Thornton, T. (2007) The cultural ecology of berries in Glacier Bay. In, Piatt, J.F. and Gende, S.M. (eds.) Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5047. Proceedings of the Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium, October 26-28 2004, US. U.S. Geological Survey. pp. 29-34.
- Thornton, T.F. (2005) Last of the sealers or last of the seals? Natural History ('Picks from the Past' online feature), June
- Wheeler, P. and Thornton, T.F. (2005) Subsistence Research in Alaska: A thirty year retrospective. Alaska Journal of Anthropology, 3(1): 69-103.
- Hunn, E.S., Johnson, D.R., Russell, P.N. and Thornton, T.F. (2003) Huna Tlingit traditional environmental knowledge, conservation and the management of a "Wilderness" Park. Current Anthropology,, 44(Supp): 167-194.
- Thornton, T.F. (2003) Place names and the language of subsistence in southeast Alaska. Maintaining the Links: Language, Identity and the Land. Proceedings of the Seventh FEL Conference, Broome, Australia. Foundation for Endangered Languages
- Thornton, T. (2001) Subsistence in Northern Communities: Lessons from Alaska. The Northern Review, 23(Summer 2001): 82-102.
- Hope III, A. and Thornton, T.F. (2000) Will the time ever come? A Tlingit sourcebook. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Indigenous Knowledge Network, University of Alaska.
- Thornton, T. (1999) Tleikw Aaní, The Berried Landscape: The structure of Tlingit edible fruit resources at Glacier Bay, Alaska. Journal of Ethnobiology, 19(1): 27-48.