Dr Sarah Darby
Associate Professor and Acting Deputy Leader, Energy Programme
Sarah Darby became interested in the social nature of energy use when evaluating home energy advice programmes, which introduced her to the many ways of describing and analysing how people and technologies interact in buildings. She works with colleagues and ideas from a range of disciplines in search of a better understanding of how energy systems work for different actors in different situations, and how they might develop in more environmentally and socially benign ways. She has a particular interest in the intelligibility / user-friendliness of technologies and buildings.
Sarah holds a BSc in Ecological Science from Edinburgh University, a postgraduate Diploma in Planning from Oxford Polytechnic and a DPhil from Oxford University (Awareness, action and feedback in domestic energy use). She contributes to teaching on the MSc course in Environmental Change and Management.
Current research interests
Sarah studies the introduction of ‘smart’ devices to electricity systems and assesses the potential for demand-side response in systems that are integrating more renewable supply and coping with changing patterns of demand. She contributes to a body of work that interprets energy systems as socio-technical, functioning through interactions between hardware, ‘software’ (regulations, billing systems, tariffs etc.), knowledge and know-how, and human activities. She maintains an interest in energy feedback and advice, and developments in smart metering.
Current and recent research projects
LEO (Local Energy Oxfordshire). Major demonstration project to create a local energy marketplace and enable more active network management. Leading on learning and dissemination. Funded by Innovate UK, Apr 2019-Mar 2022.
NEWCOMERS (New clean energy communities in a changing European energy system) is exploring new business models for energy communities, with the aim of drawing up practical recommendations for how EU, national and local governments can support them. PI for Oxford, leading on case studies. Funded by the European Commission (Horizon 2020), June 2019-May 2022
INTEGRATE, the Oxford Martin Programme on Integrating Renewable Energy. Addressing the technical, economic and governance challenges of integrating high levels of variable renewable energy sources into electricity systems. Co-I, leading on demand-side issues. Funded by the Oxford Martin School, Oct 2015-Mar 2021
UKERC (UK Energy Research Centre) Theme 5: key challenges in energy decision-making. Working on (1) Understanding energy demand: energy-using practices and energy services; (2) Demand-side response decisions. Funded by the Research Councils' UK Energy Programme, Jan 2015-2019
RealValue (Realising Value from Electricity Markets with Local Smart Electric Thermal Storage Technology). RealValue (Realising Value from Electricity Markets with Local Smart Electric Thermal Storage Technology) Using domestic storage heating in Ireland, Germany and Latvia to benefit households and electricity markets. PI for Oxford contribution, working with Glen Dimplex, Intel, University College Dublin, DIW, RTU, VTT, ESBN, EirGrid, e.on and SSE.
Funded by the European Commission (Horizon 2020), June 2015-May 2018
UserTEC (User Practices, Technologies and Residential Energy Consumption) (Co-I). A multidisciplinary research project to improve understanding of user practices and interaction with new technologies. The project is led by the University of Aalborg and funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research, with partners at the Universities of Cambridge and Linkoping, Delft Technical University and the Technical University of Denmark. Mar 2013-Mar 2018.
Advisory and Review
2019 - Editorial board, Buildings and Cities
2018 – Editorial board, Energy Research and Social Science
2017 – Technical advisory board, HELP project (Humanitarian Energy for displaced populations in refugee camp and informal settlements) funded by the Global Challenges Research Fund,
2013 – Evaluation panel, Swiss Competence Centre for Research in Energy, Society and Transition
2016 - Peer review college, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
2014-2018 – Editorial board, Building Research and Information
2011-14 Peer review college, Economic and Social Research Council
Sarah has reviewed papers, reports and proposals for journals and organisations including Energy Policy, Energy Efficiency, Energy, Climate Policy, Energy Economics, Environmental Science and Policy, Energy and Buildings, Environment and Planning (A and C), IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Indoor and Built Environment, Intelligent Buildings International, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Environmental Psychology, The Energy Journal, Transactions of IEEE Power & Energy, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Applied Energy; Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (UK), National Science Foundation (USA), American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Belgian Science Policy Office, Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, Electric Power Research Institute (USA), and the Brattle Group.
- Darby, S. (2020) Energy, human activity, and knowledge: Addressing smart city challenges. Chapter 2.6 in, Lopes, M., Henggeler Antunes, C. and Janda, K.B. (eds.) Energy and Behaviour: Towards a Low Carbon Future. Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 237-260. ISBN: 978-0-12-818567-4.
- Lucivero, F., Samuel, G., Blair, G., Darby, S.J., Fawcett, T., Hazas, M., Ten Holter, C., Jirotka, M., Parker, M., Webb, H. and Yuan, H. (2020) Data-driven unsustainability? An interdisciplinary perspective on governing the environmental impacts of a data-driven society. SSRN.
- Boait, P., Snape, J.P., Morris, R., Hamilton, J. and Darby, S. (2019) The Practice and Potential of Renewable Energy Localisation: Results from a UK Field Trial. Sustainability, 11(1): 1-15.
- Darby, S.J. (2019) Communicating innovations: examples from smart technology retrofits. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 329.
- Darby, S.J. (2019) Smart and sustainable, fast and slow. Proceedings, ECEEE Summer Study, Hyères, France. Paper 5-318-19.
- Fawcett, T. and Darby, S.J. (2019) Energy sufficiency in policy and practice: the question of needs and wants. Proceedings of ECEEE Summer Study - Belambra Presquile de Giens, France.
- Abrahamse, W., Darby, S.J. and McComas, K. (2018) Communication Is Key: How to Discuss Energy and Environmental Issues with Consumers. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 16(1).
- Darby, S. and Fawcett, T. (2018) Energy sufficiency: an introduction. A concept paper for ECEEE. European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.
- Darby, S.J. (2018) Smart electric storage heating and potential for residential demand response. Energy Efficiency, 11(1): 67-77.
- Darby, S.J., Higginson, S., Topouzi, M., Goodhew, J. and Reiss, S. (2018) Getting the balance right: can smart thermal storage work for both customers and grids? Consumer impact study, RealValue project Horizon 2020. Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford.
- Eyre, N., Darby, S.J., Grunewald, P., McKenna, E. and Ford, R. (2018) Reaching a 1.5°C target: socio-technical challenges for a rapid transition to low-carbon electricity systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 376(2119).
- Gram-Hanssen, K. and Darby, S.J. (2018) “Home is where the smart is”? Evaluating smart home research and approaches against the concept of home. Energy Research and Social Science, 37: 94-101.
- Higginson, S., Topouzi, M., Andrade-Cabrera, C., O'Dwyer, C., Darby, S. and Finn, D. (2018) Achieving Data Synergy: The Socio-Technical Process of Handling Data. In, Foulds, C. and Robison, R. (eds.) Advancing Energy Policy. Palgrave Pivot, Cham.
- Morstyn, T., Farrell, N., Darby, S.J., McCulloch, M.D. (2018) Using peer-to-peer energy-trading platforms to incentivize prosumers to form federated power plants. Nature Energy, 3: 94-101.
- Bell, K., Eyre, N., Hawker, G., Gissey, G.C., Dodds, P., Darby, S.J., Irvine, J., Paul, G. and Watson, J. (2017) A Smart, Flexible Energy System: The UK Energy Research Centre's (UKERC) Response to the Ofgem / BEIS Call for Evidence. UKERC, London.
- Boait, P.J., Snape, J.R., Darby, S.J., Hamilton, J. and Morris, R.J.R. (2017) Making legacy thermal storage heating fit for the smart grid. Energy and Buildings, 138: 630-640.
- Darby, S.J. (2017) Coal fires, steel houses and the man in the moon: Local experiences of energy transition. Energy Research and Social Science, 31: 120-127.
- Darby, S.J. (2017) Smart technology in the home: time for more clarity. Building Research and Information, 46(1): 140-147.
- McKenna, E. and Darby, S.J. (2017) How much could domestic demand response technologies reduce CO2 emissions? Paper 2-107-17, Proceedings, European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy summer study, Hyères, May 29- June 3.
- McKenna, E., Higginson, S., Grunewald, P., Darby, S.J. (2017) Simulating residential demand response: Improving socio-technical assumptions in activity-based models of energy demand. Energy Efficiency, 10(44): 1-15.
- Darby, S.J. (2016) Balancing the system comfortably? Electric storage heating and residential demand response. 4th European Conference on Behaviour and Energy Efficiency (BEHAVE), Coimbra, Portugal, September 8-9.
- Darby, S.J. (2016) Smart Meters and Residential Customers. In, Liu, C.C., McArthur, S. and Lee, S.J. (eds.) Smart Grid Handbook. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK. pp. 1119-1131.
- Eyre, N., Bell, K. and Darby, S. (2016) Electricity: harnessing rapid change. In, Review of Energy Policy, a UKERC policy briefing. . Commissioned by UK Energy Research Centre, London.
- Gram-Hanssen, K. and Darby, S. (2016) Are ‘home’ and ’smart’ contradictory concepts or fluid positions that will converge? DEMAND Centre Conference, Lancaster, 13-15 April 2016.
- Darby, S.J. and Liddell, C. (2015) Communicating ‘smartness’: smart meter installers in UK homes. Paper 9-050-15, European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy summer study, Hyères, June 1-5, 2015
- Darby, S.J., Liddell, C., Hills, D. and Drabble, D. (2015) Smart Metering Early Learning Project: synthesis report. Department of Energy and Climate Change, London.
- Gupta, R., Eyre, N., Darby, S., Lucas, K., Barnfield, L., Hamilton, J., Mayne, R., Gregg, M., Fratter, C. and Irving, B. (2015) Evaluating the impacts, effectiveness and success of low carbon communities on localised energy behaviours (EVALOC). Final Report, Oxford Brookes University and University of Oxford, Oxford.
- Liu, Y., Eyre, N., Darby, S., Keay, M., Robinson, D. and Li, X. (2015) Assessment of Demand Response Market Potential and Benefits in Shanghai. Report for the Natural Resources Defense Council
- Darby, S.J., Griffin, P.W., Julien, A., Killip, G., Morton, C. and Summerfield, A. (2014) Insights on Energy Demand. Synthesis of Findings from the UKERC Phase 2 Demand Theme, 2009-2013 (Working Paper). UKERC Report UKERC/WP/ED/2014/001, UKERC: London.
- Palm, J. and Darby, S.J. (2014) The meanings of practices for energy consumption - a comparison of homes and workplaces. Science and Technology Studies, 27(2): 72-92.
- Butler, C., Darby, S., Henfrey, T., Hoggett, R. and Hole, N. (2013) People and Communities in Energy Security. In, Mitchell, C., Watson, J. and Whiting, J. (eds.) New Challenges in Energy Security: The UK in a Multipolar World. Palgrave, London.
- Darby, S.J. (2013) The role of smart meters in carbon management. Carbon Management, 4(2): 111-113. Editorial.
- Darby, S.J. and Pisica, I. (2013) Focus on electricity tariffs: experience and exploration of different charging schemes. European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy summer study, Hyères, June 3-7, 2013. Paper 8-318-13.
- Darby, S.J., Strömbäck, J. and Wilks, M. (2013) Potential carbon impacts of smart grid development in six European countries. Energy Efficiency, 6(4): 725-739.
- Axon, C., Hobson, P., Pisica, I., Taylor, G., Darby, S., Granell, R., Layberry, R. and Wallom, D. (2012) Towards an Understanding of Dynamic Energy Pricing and Tariffs. Paper 159, Proceedings, 47th International Universities Power Engineering Conference, Brunel University, 4-7 September.
- Darby, S. (2012) Load management at home: advantages and drawbacks of some 'active demand side' options. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 227(1): 9-17.
- Darby, S. and McKenna, E. (2012) Social implications of residential demand response in cool temperate climates. Energy Policy, 49: 759-769.
- Darby, S.J. (2012) Metering: EU policy and implications for fuel poor households. Energy Policy, 49: 98-106.
- Mayne, R., Darby, S. and Hamilton, J. (2012) A literature review for the EVALOC project: Individual and Social Influences on Energy Use. EVALOC Working Paper.
- Darby, S. (2011) Load management at home: advantages and drawbacks of some 'active demand side' options. Proceedings, 2nd International Conference in Microgeneration and Related Technologies in Buildings, Microgen '11', University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, April 4-6.
- Darby, S. (2011) The 'time' dimension of electricity, options for the householder and implications for policy. Proceedings, World Renewable Energy Congress, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11.
- Darby, S., Anderson, W. and White, V. (2011) Large-scale testing of new technology: some lessons from the UK smart metering and feedback trials. Proceedings, European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Summer Study Paper 7-524.
- Gupta, R. and Darby, S. (2011) Action research approach for gaining, and providing, feedback on domestic energy use to understand occupant behaviour, perceptions and expectations., Oxford, UK. Paper presented at Energy and People: Futures, complexity and challenges, 21-22 September, 2011.
- Novikova, A., Amecke, H., Neuhoff, K., Stelmakh, K., Kiss, B., Rohde, C., Dunkelberg, E., Weiss, J., Matscoss, K. and Darby, S. (2011) Information tools for energy demand reduction in existing residential buildings. CPI Report Climate Policy Initiative.
- Pyrko, J. and Darby, S. (2011) Conditions of energy efficient behaviour - a comparative study between Sweden and the UK. Energy Efficiency, 4(3): 393-408.
- Darby, S. (2010) Communicating energy demand: measurement, display and the language of things. In, Whitmarsh, L., O'Neill, S. and Lorenzoni, I. (eds.) Engaging the Public with Climate Change: Behaviour Change and Communication. Earthscan. 288 pp. ISBN: 9781844079285.
- Darby, S. (2010) Literature review for the energy demand research project. Ofgem (Office of Gas and Electricity Markets), London.
- Darby, S. (2010) Smart metering: what potential for householder engagement? Building Research and Information, 38(5): 442-457.
- Darby, S. (2009) Conditions of behavioural changes towards efficient energy use - a comparative study between Sweden and the UK..
- Darby, S. (2009) Implementing Article 13 of the Energy Services Directive and defining the purpose of new metering infrastructures. Proceedings of the European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy Summer Study. Paper(2262).
- Darby, S. (2009) Literature review: real-time energy display functionality. Appendix 3 in Anderson, W. and White, V. Exploring the functionality of real-time home energy displays. Report to the Energy Saving Trust. Centre for Sustainable Energy, Bristol, UK
- Parag, Y. and Darby, S. (2009) Consumer-supplier-government triangular relations: rethinking the UK policy path for carbon emissions reduction from the UK residential sector. Energy Policy, 37(10): 3984-3992.
- Darby, S. (2008) Energy feed back in buildings: improving the infrastructure for demand reduction. Building Research and Information, 36(5): 499-508.
- Darby, S. (2008) Why, what, when, how, where and who? Developing UK policy on metering, billing and energy display devices. Proceedings of ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Asilomar, CA. August 17-22: 70-81. Paper 7_137.
- Darby, S. (2007) Enough is as good as a feast - Sufficiency as a policy. Proceedings, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy Summer Study, 4-9 June 2007.. 111-120. ISBN: 9789163308994.
- Hinnells, M., Boardman, B., Layberry, R., Darby, S. and Killip, G. (2007) The UK Housing Stock 2005 to 2050: Assumptions used in Scenarios and Sensitivity Analysis in UKDCM2. Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford 48 pp.
- Darby, S. (2006) Social learning and public policy: lessons from an energy-conscious village. Energy Policy, 34(17): 2929-2940.
- Darby, S. (2006) The effectiveness of feedback on energy consumption. A review for DEFRA of the literature on metering, billing and direct displays..
- Palmer, J., Boardman, B., Bottrill, C., Darby, S., Hinnells, M., Killip, G., Layberry, R. and Lovell, H. (2006) Reducing the environmental impact of housing. Final Report, Consultancy study in support of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollutions 26th Report on the Urban Environment.
- Darby, S. (2005) Learning about energy - how will low-impact energy use become a way of life. Proceedings of the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (eceee) 2005 Summer Study - What works & who delivers?, 30 May - 4 June 2005.. 1335-1342. ISBN: 9163140020.
- Darby, S. (2003) Making sense of energy advice. Proceedings, European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy Summer Study, paper 6,157.
- Boardman, B. and Darby, S. (2000) Effective Advice: energy efficiency and the disadvantaged. Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, UK.
- Darby, S. (2000) Making it obvious: designing feedback into energy consumption. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Household Appliances and Lighting. Italian Association of Energy Economists / EC-SAVE programme.
- Darby, S. (1999) Energy advice - what is it worth?, 5, Paper III Proceedings of the European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy Summer Study.
- Green, J., Darby, S., Maby, C. and Boardman, B. (1998) Advice into action An evaluation of the effectiveness of energy advice to low income households. Keswick (United Kingdom): Eaga Charitable Trust